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pH is a measure of the H+ (acidic proton) concentration in a solution.  A pH close to 7 is neutral and a pH close to 0 means that there is a high concentration of H+.  There are lots of ways to get to determine pH and all of the equations are included on this downloadable PDF.  If you're in an AP or college level course, ICE tables, buffers, and titrations are also included.

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